Thinking – Empirical – Logical

Personality Traits

Personality TraitDescription
IntroversionFocused on inner experiences, preferring solitary or small group interactions.
ExtroversionEnergized by social interactions and external environments.
IntuitionDrawn to theoretical ideas and possibilities, comfortable with uncertainty.
SensingRelies on observable data and experiences to make decisions.
FeelingConsiders emotional impact and values when making choices.
ThinkingUtilizes logical reasoning and facts to reach conclusions.
JudgingValues structure and plans, prefers predictability.
PerceivingFlexible and open, more comfortable with improvisation.

Thinking, as a psychological preference, involves making decisions based on empirical data and past experiences. This preference combines two essential elements—empirical cognition and experiential decision-making—to form a structured and efficient approach to solving problems and making decisions.

Empirical Cognition: The Foundation of Reasoning

People with a Thinking preference lean heavily on empirical cognition. This means they rely on observable facts, data, and evidence to make decisions or form opinions. They might resemble a scientist conducting experiments to validate or refute a hypothesis. They seek to understand the “how” and “why” behind things, often dismantling concepts to their most basic components to understand them fully.

Empirical Cognition in Daily Life

Empirical cognition is especially useful in practical settings. For instance, in a corporate environment, a person who prefers Thinking will lean on data analytics, historical trends, and quantifiable metrics to make decisions. When faced with an unfamiliar challenge, they would likely turn to previous case studies, empirical evidence, or a trial-and-error method to come up with a solution.

Experiential Decision-Making: The Archives of the Mind

The second aspect of the Thinking trait is experiential decision-making. People with this preference often rely on their own or others’ past experiences when making decisions. In many ways, if empirical cognition is the scientist, then experiential decision-making is the historian of the person’s mental landscape. It archives past situations, providing a resource to draw upon when navigating current or future challenges.

Experiential Decision-Making in Real Life

Imagine you’re dealing with a difficult coworker. A person who leans toward Thinking might recall past experiences dealing with similar personalities and adopt a tried-and-true strategy to navigate the situation. If they don’t have a personal experience to rely upon, they might consult articles or advice grounded in empirical studies on human behavior.

Synergy of Empirical and Experiential Strategies

In essence, empirical cognition and experiential decision-making complement each other. Empirical cognition provides a solid structure based on hard facts, while experiential decision-making enriches this framework with nuanced insights gained from past experiences. This blend makes individuals with a Thinking preference highly adaptable to both routine tasks and unforeseen challenges.

An Everyday Example

Consider a software engineer tasked with fixing a bug in a codebase. Their empirical cognition guides them through the debugging process, leaning on factual data and logical analysis. Meanwhile, their experiential decision-making recalls past instances of similar issues, helping them choose the most efficient way to tackle the problem.


Understanding the interplay between empirical cognition and experiential decision-making can offer valuable insights into the Thinking personality trait. This preference leans on hard facts and past experiences, making it a powerful tool for effective problem-solving and decision-making.

Thinking Personality Types

Personality TypeDescription
ENTJ – The CommanderEfficient in organizing systems, often assumes leadership roles.
INTJ – The StrategistAppreciates complexity and looks for long-term efficiency.
ESTJ – The SupervisorValues traditional structures, tends to oversee tasks rigorously.
ISTJ – The LogisticianHighly reliable, uses past experience to guide actions and expectations.
ENTP – The DebaterEnjoys challenging ideas, often for the sake of intellectual stimulation.
INTP – The ThinkerIntrigued by conceptual possibilities, enjoys intellectual pursuits.

Thinking Cognitive Functions

Cognitive FunctionDescription
Introverted Thinking (Ti)Focuses on internal logical consistency, seeks to understand the principles behind things.
Extroverted Thinking (Te)Concentrates on external systems and efficiencies, aims to apply logic and standards to the external world.
Thinking Perceiving (Tp)Adaptable and analytical, utilizes logic to explore options and possibilities.
Thinking Judging (Tj)Structured and decisive, relies on empirical evidence to form judgments and make plans.